Stingrays will not vigorously invasion mankind, even though stings do typically take place when a ray is inadvertently stepped on.To avoid moving on a stingray in shallow drinking water, the water needs to be waded via by using a shuffle.Otherwise, prior to wading, rocks might be cast into the drinking water to scare stingrays away.Experience of the stinger leads to local stress (from the lower by itselfswelling, ) and pain muscle mass pains from your venom, and then may result in disease from harmful bacteria or fungus infection.The damage is extremely painful, but seldom daily life-harmful unless the stinger pierces a crucial region.The barb generally breaks away from the injury, and surgical procedure may be needed to eliminate the fragments.
Can happen, infamously including Steve Irwin, though fatal stings are very rare. In this case, the stinger penetrated the thoracic wall surface, resulting in substantial trauma
Clinical Sign and Symptom
Sting rays injuries
In a journal :
232 cases in US , 62 hospitalized,majority admitted because need surgical wound closure or secondary infection. 8 patient admitted due to systemic reaction. 2 patient death due to serous laceration wound.
Mechanism : once sting enter flesh, the integumentary sheath surrounding the spine was ruptured and the venom escapes into victim’s tissue.
Puncture site = produce large and severely lacerated wound(depends on sting rays size) , severe pain , swelling and redness at puncture site.
Vomiting,syncope,weakness, nausea,palpitation,swwating, diahrea,cramping, cardia arrhytmias,parasthesia and convulsion may occur.
Low concentration of toxin
•Transient vasodilation, bradycardia prolong PR interval, 1st degree heart block
Larger concentration of toxin
•2nd or 3ed heart block, vasocontrictions, fall systemic arterial pressure, ischaemia of heart muscle.
vasocontriction, heart block, Low blood pressure,cardiovascular collapsed
•Most of protein of venom are extremely labile and inactivated by heating
•Immerse the affected area in water as hot as is tolerable usually relieves pain from a sting.
•Spines should be removed
•The wound should be scrubbed and irrigated with fresh water.
•Oral antibiotics if infected.
•Suture if wound large lacerated
•Update anti tetanus
Supportive treatment if systemic reaction occur