Clinical sign and symptom
•13 dorsal spine ,3 anal spines and 2 pelvic spines.
–Most cause local reaction
–Systemic reaction rare
•Severe pain, swelling,redness,celullitis, vesicle or bullae
•Pallor, diaphoresis,nausea,muscle weakness,dyspnoe,headahce,delirium, convulsion,hypotension,syncope
•**animal study = pulmonary hemorrhage,myotoxic,neurotoxic,hypotension primary cause of death in animal studies.
•Immerse the affected area in water as hot as is tolerable usually relieves pain from a sting.
•Spines should be removed
•The wound should be scrubbed and irrigated with fresh water.
•Oral antibiotics if infected.
•Suture if wound large lacerated
•Update anti tetanus
•Supportive treatment if systemic reaction occur